In 1647, under Derocvio Piccolomini, the Habsburgs were able to repel the Swedes and French from present-day Austria. Lutheranism, since its founding in Wittenberg in 1517, has been welcomed with goodwill in Germany, as well as in German-speaking parts of Hussite Bohemia (where the Hussite wars took place from 1419 to 1434 and where the Hussites remained the majority of the population until the Battle of White Mountain in 1620). The sermon of Martin Luther and his many supporters ended throughout Europe. In northern Germany, Luther took the tactic of winning the support of local princes and the city`s elites in his struggle for the assumption and restoration of the church according to Lutheran aspects. The elector of Saxony, the Landgraf of Hesse, and other princes of northern Germany protected Luther not only from reprisals under the prohibition law of The Roman Emperor Charles V, but also the authority of the state to impose the establishment of Lutheran worship in their countries, in the so-called magisite. The property of the church was confiscated and Catholic worship was banned in most of the territories that adopted the Lutheran Reformation. The resulting political conflicts within the Empire almost inevitably led to war. The interim was overthrown in 1552 by the insurrection of the Protestant elector Maurice of Saxony and his allies. During the negotiations in Passau in the summer of 1552, even the Catholic princes had called for a lasting peace, fearing that the religious controversy would never be resolved. However, the emperor was not willing to recognize religious division in Western Christianity as permanent. This document was foretold by the peace of Passau, which in 1552 granted religious freedom to Lutherans after a victory of the Protestant armies.
According to the Passau document, Karl only granted peace until the next Reichstag, whose assembly was convened in early 1555. The Thirty Years` War was a 17th century religious conflict, which took place mainly in Central Europe. It remains one of the longest and most brutal wars in human history, with more than 8 million victims from military combat, as well as famine and disease caused by conflict. The war lasted from 1618 to 1648 and began as a battle between the Catholic and Protestant states that formed the Holy Roman Empire. But when the Thirty Years` War developed, it was not so much about religion as it was about which group in Europe would ultimately govern. In the end, the conflict changed the geopolitical face of Europe and the role of religion and nation states in society. Maurice von Nassau, William`s son, had studied mathematics and applied the latest science techniques to ballistic and siege warfare. He took over Deventer, Groningen, Nijmegen and Zutphen. But this was generally considered unsatisfactory by both Catholics and Protestants. The political temperature of the surrounding countries increased as religious unrest intensified in the Netherlands.